Humans build, make, and eat things. If you cannot grow those critical things you must mine them from the Earth.
The term mineral resources covers all solid earth materials that are mined to make modern life possible. Indiana
is a powerhouse of mineral resources. Despite the state’s small size and limited demographics, Indiana ranks high
in production of many mining commodities. Indiana produces coal for energy. Stone, sand, and gravel are mined for
building roads, bridges, buildings, and all the state’s infrastructure. Other essential minerals needed for today’s
life are also mined in Indiana.
A major resource is coal. Indiana produces 36 million tons of coal each year. Coal is discussed in detail elsewhere.
Surface mines and underground mines provide the black gold that makes most Hoosier electricity. Modern reclamation
practices restore mined areas into cropland, forests, lakes, and many attractive kryptow盲hrung bitcoin kurs sites for reuse of the energy-rich
Indiana is probably best known for her dimension building stone. Indiana Limestone (properly named Salem Limestone)
is mined in south-central Indiana but is used all over the United States. Indiana Limestone has helped construct such
iconic buildings as the Empire State Building, the Pentagon, The Washington National Cathedral, and many venerable
official, commercial, or religious structures.
The more widespread and less uniform limestones provide for excellent crushed aggregate, cement, chemical raw
material, and for limited architectural uses. Lime, produced by heating crushed stone is used in agriculture and the
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A widespread but highly variable resource is sand and gravel that was formed mostly by glacial actions of large ice
sheets and then sorted by running water. Sand and gravel can be used alone as fill, for gravel roads, or residential
driveways. More often the coarser parts or gravels find use as components of concrete or asphalt pavement. Sand, a finer
granular material, also is important in concrete and in making mortar and in snow and ice control. Very fine grained
sand finds use in foundries to make molds, and also in sandblasting, glass-making, or even as golf-course sand.
Very fine grained clay-rich rocks called shales are the major ingredient in brick, tile, and other fired ceramics.
In the past dozens of village brickmakers used local clays or shales to make bricks using lots of hand labor. Now a
handful of very large, automated, efficient plants produce hundreds of millions of bricks each year. Specialized
products such as light weight aggregate and a host of art products also use Indiana shales. Shale is also an important
ingredient in cement.
The coarser sandstone rocks are used as dimension stone, refractories, abrasives, and for other jobs that require hard,
durable materials. Sandstones are hard, cemented stones that differ from sands that are loose grains.
The soft mineral gypsum forms deposits in several parts of Indiana and supports a large wallboard industry in the
Shoals area. Underground mines produce gypsum from beds several hundred feet below the hills of Martin County.
Deposits of ice age peat or marl (a fine grained uncemented limestone) are mined in northern Indiana. These materials
are used mostly for gardening.
Man-made materials also find extensive use. Slag generated from Indiana steel mills is used as aggregate, especially
in the Northwest where there is little mining of natural materials. Slag, flyash, and flue gas scrubber residues that
form during coal combustion also find extensive use in construction.
Indiana has abundant mineral resources that are carefully mined to provide the millions of tons of raw materials that
each of us require each year.
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Post Time:(2021-12-29 17:50:30)